Frequently Asked Questions
Last Updated: October 13, 2020
[This page has been archived.] The application period for CFAP ended on September 11 for most producers. FSA accepted applications until October 9, 2020, for certain producers in Louisiana, Oregon, and Texas impacted by natural disasters.
USDA is implementing Coronavirus Food Assistance Program 2 for agricultural producers who continue to face market disruptions and associated costs because of COVID-19. Visit farmers.gov/cfap to learn more.
Q: Who is eligible to participate in the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program?
A: The Coronavirus Food Assistance Program, or CFAP, is available to an individual or legal entity who shares in the risk of producing a crop or livestock and who either: a) is entitled to a share in the crop or livestock available for marketing, or b) would have shared had the crop or livestock been marketed. Processing entities are ineligible.
Persons and legal entities also must:
- comply with the provisions of the “Highly Erodible Land and Wetland Conservation” regulations, often called the conservation compliance provisions; and
- not have a controlled substance violation.
- if a person who is not a US Citizen or Resident Alien (possessing an I-551 “Green Card”), then that person must provide a significant contribution of capital, land, and active personal labor to be eligible for CFAP payments.
- if a legal entity with more than 10 percent ownership held by persons who are not a US Citizen or Resident Alien, then that entity is eligible for payment if each foreign person in the entity makes a significant contribution of labor to the farming operation. If the foreign person(s) does not make a significant contribution of active personal labor to the farming operation, the legal entity’s payment is reduced by the pro-rata ownership interest held by the foreign person(s).
Q: Are contract growers eligible to participate in the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program?
A: A contract grower who does not own the livestock is eligible if the contract allows the grower to have price risk in the livestock.
Q: Are urban farmers and farmers who run community supported agriculture (CSA) operations eligible?
A: All farmers, including urban farmers and farmers who run CSAs are eligible for CFAP if they meet the eligibility requirements of an eligible producer.
Q: I don’t participate in any USDA programs. Can I apply for CFAP?
A: Yes. Participation in other USDA programs is not a prerequisite.
Q: Should a marketing cooperative apply, or should each grower apply separately?
A: Each grower should apply separately.
Q: Is there an Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) limit to participate in CFAP?
A: Yes. To participate, a person or legal entity’s AGI cannot exceed $900,000 (using the average for the 2016, 2017, and 2018 tax years). However, the AGI limit does not apply if 75 percent or more of an eligible person’s or legal entity’s AGI comes from farming, ranching or forestry-related activities.
Q: Who must fill out forms CCC-941 and CCC-942 to certify average AGI and Farm AGI?
A: Forms CCC-941 and CCC-942 (if applicable) used for certifying average AGI and Farm AGI are required to be filed by an applicant who is an individual or a legal entity (including all members, stockholders, or partners at or above the fourth level of ownership in the business structure).
Q: Do the Farm Bill’s conservation compliance requirements apply to CFAP?
A: Producers participating in CFAP must be in compliance with the highly erodible land conservation and wetland conservation provisions at 7 CFR Part 12. Producers must agree, by certifying on Form AD-1026, that they will not produce an agricultural commodity on highly erodible land without a conservation system, plant an agricultural commodity on a converted wetland or convert a wetland to make possible the production of an agricultural commodity.
Q: What does “unpriced” or “subject to price risk” mean?
A: Unpriced, or subject to price risk, means not subject to an agreed-upon price in the future through a forward contract, agreement, or similar binding document as of January 15, 2020.
Q: Are producers who are members of a co-op who deliver their eligible commodity to a co-op eligible for CFAP?
A: Yes, as long as they maintain risk and share of the eligible commodity delivered to the co-op as required by the applicable dates specified in the final rule and program policies.
Q: Does participation in Small Business Administration programs impact CFAP eligibility?
A: Participation in SBA’s Paycheck Protection Program or Economic Injury Disaster Loan program does not impact producer eligibility for CFAP or for any USDA farm program. The PPP duplicate benefit provision does not have an impact on FSA farm programs or farm loan programs.
Q: What commodities and livestock are eligible?
A: Eligible commodities must have either a) suffered a five percent-or-greater price decline or b) experienced market supply chain disruptions due to COVID-19 and face additional significant marketing costs. Visit farmers.gov/cfap1 for updated information on all eligible commodities or our commodity-specific pages for eligibility information related to non-specialty crops, wool, livestock, dairy, specialty crops, aquaculture, nursery crops and cut flowers, and eggs.
Q: COVID-19 has had a significant negative impact on my farm business. Why isn’t the commodity I produced included in the program?
A: Commodities eligible for CFAP are those for which USDA determined that a five percent-or-greater price decline occurred during specified timeframes. USDA requested data from the public on agricultural commodities not originally included in CFAP which may have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and for which sufficient information was not immediately available. The deadline for submission was June 22, 2020.
In response to comments and data received by the public, USDA announced on July 9 that it would make more than 40 additional specialty crop commodities eligible for the program. Nearly 60 additional commodities were announced on August 11, including additions to specialty crops and livestock along with the inclusion of nursery crops and cut flowers, aquaculture, and certain types of eggs.
Commodities that did not suffer a five percent-or-greater price decline due to COVID-19 between the specified timeframes, or commodities for which there was not enough data to substantiate a claim, are not eligible for CFAP.
USDA offers a range of flexibilities to support farmers and ranchers impacted by the coronavirus pandemic. Learn more at farmers.gov/coronavirus.
Q: What commodities are not eligible for CFAP?
A: Commodities that did not suffer a five percent-or-greater price decline between the specified timeframes, or commodities for which there was not enough data to substantiate a claim, are not eligible for CFAP. Specifically, this includes, goats, bison, buffalo, beefalo, turkeys, mink, mohair, shell eggs, dried eggs, layers, soft red winter wheat, hard red winter wheat, white wheat, rice, flax, rye, green peanuts, Extra Long Staple (ELS) cotton, alfalfa, hemp, tobacco, and all ineligible commodities without sufficient data as outlined in the NOFA that's effective on August 14.
Additionally, USDA received comments requesting CFAP assistance for oysters, clams, mussels, scallops, and marine algae. The Secretary of Commerce is providing assistance for molluscan shellfish and marine algae with funding provided by section 12005 of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act, Pub. L. 116-136). To avoid providing duplicate payments for the same losses, USDA has determined that CFAP will not cover those commodities. Learn more about aquaculture eligibility for CFAP at farmers.gov/cfap1/aquaculture.
Q: What milk production is eligible for CFAP?
A: Any milk that was commercially marketed during January, February, and March of 2020 is eligible for payment under CFAP. In addition, milk that was dumped during this timeframe will be considered marketed and therefore eligible for payment.
Q: I previously applied for CFAP and see additional commodities that I produce are now eligible for the program. Do I need to apply again?
A: If you have already applied for CFAP with previously eligible commodities, but also produce commodities that are now eligible, you may amend your original application to include the additional or newly designated eligible commodities. A new application is not required. Contact your FSA office to assist with the amendment.
Q: I previously applied for CFAP not knowing my commodity was ineligible and my application was disapproved. Now, I see my commodity is eligible. Do I need to reapply?
A: USDA began accepting applications for additional commodities announced on July 9 on July 13, 2020. Applications for commodities announced on August 11 will be accepted beginning the week of August 17. If a producer submitted a CFAP application for a previously ineligible commodity, and the application was disapproved, the producer must submit a new CFAP application. If the producer submitted an application and was paid for CFAP but also has crops that are now considered eligible or are now eligible for CARES Act funding for sales losses, the producer should NOT submit a new application, but rather, contact the local FSA office to amend the application.
For producers who have already applied for CFAP and whose commodities have experienced payment rate increases, FSA will automatically calculate the increase and issue a payment. For potato and mint payments, producers will need to contact FSA to amend the application to identify the specific type of potatoes or mint. Producers who have already applied will not be impacted by a payment rate decrease.
Q: Do commodities need to be produced in the United States to be eligible for CFAP 1? How does this apply to livestock?
A: Payments will be made with respect to only commodities produced in the United States. Commodities other than livestock that are imported into the United States may not be used to determine any payment made under this part. To be considered “produced in the United States,” livestock sold between January 15, 2020, and April 15, 2020, must have been physically located in the United States as of January 15, 2020, and must have remained in the United States until they were sold.
For imported livestock inventory owned between April 16, 2020, and May 14, 2020, “produced in the United States” means that the livestock must have been physically located in the United States on the applicable date for which the producer is reporting their highest owned inventory, because producers have been incurring and continue to incur additional marketing costs related to the COVID-19 pandemic for those livestock.
Q: What marketing contracts have an effect on eligible CFAP non-specialty crops?
A: The chart below outlines CFAP eligibility for certain market contracts and only applies to non-specialty crops. A printable version is available in our fact sheet, Coronavirus Food Assistance Program for Non-Specialty Crop Producers. This fact sheet is also available in Spanish and Puerto Rican Spanish.
Non-Specialty Crop Marketing Contract Eligibility for CFAP
Type of Contract in Existence
Contracts Eligible for CFAP
Producer locks in a basis leaving the future price to be set later.
Basis Fixed Contract
No Price Established
Producer delivers commodity without setting a sales price.
Deferred Price Contract
Contracts Ineligible for CFAP
Producer receives a cash price for a commodity when sold.
Fixed Price Contract
Forward Price Contract
Producer receives a cash price for a commodity based on a future delivery.
Cash Forward Contract
Minimum Price Contract
Producer locks in the cash price and buys a call option to establish a minimum price. The net cash price will never be less than the original cash value minus the cost of the call option.
Hedge to Arrive
Producer locks in a futures price leaving the basis to be set later.
Futures Fixed Contract
Q: When does CFAP sign up start and end?
A: The application period for CFAP ended on September 11 for most producers. FSA updated the deadline for certain producers impacted by natural disasters to apply for the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program. The deadline for impacted producers in Louisiana and the following Oregon and Texas counties was October 9, 2020.
Louisiana: Eligible producers in Louisiana that were impacted by Hurricane Laura had through October 9 to apply for CFAP.
Oregon: Eligible producers in Benton, Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, Josephine, Klamath Falls, Lane, Lincoln, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill counties in Oregon had through October 9 to apply for CFAP. FSA only authorized this updated deadline for areas impacted by wildfire.
Texas: Eligible producers in Jasper, Jefferson, Newton, Orange, Sabine, and Tyler counties in Texas had through October 9 to apply for CFAP. FSA only authorized this updated deadline for areas impacted by Hurricane Laura.
Q: Do all producers need to apply through the Farm Service Agency?
A: Yes. Producers of all eligible commodities must apply for assistance through their local USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) Service Center. Producers can locate their service center, download the application forms, and find addition information at farmers.gov/cfap1.
Q: How can I prepare to apply for CFAP?
A: If you are a new customer to USDA, your local FSA staff will work with you to apply for the program, and will ask for this type of information:
- Name and address
- Personal information, including your Tax Identification Number
- Farm operating structure
- Adjusted Gross Income compliance certification to ensure eligibility
- Direct deposit information to enable payment
Q: My local USDA Service Center is not open for walk-in service. How do I apply for CFAP?
USDA Service Centers are open for business, including some that are open to visitors to conduct business in person by appointment only. All Service Center visitors wishing to conduct business with FSA should call ahead and schedule an appointment. While program delivery staff will continue to come into the office, they will be working with producers in office (where available), by phone and using online tools. You can find the phone number and the location of your local USDA Service Center at farmers.gov/cfap1 and view the status of your local Service Center at farmers.gov/coronavirus/service-center-status.
Q: Where can I get a CFAP application?
A: Applicants can download the AD-3114 application form or CFAP Application Generator and Payment Calculator at farmers.gov/cfap1.
As the deadline for sign up for the first round of CFAP has passed, online applications for CFAP 1 are no longer available. Please contact your local service center for assistance on existing or late applications.
Q: Are CFAP funds a loan that must be repaid? Is there a fee to apply?
A: No. CFAP is not a loan program and there is no cost to apply.
Q: What documents do I need to submit with my application?
A: To complete the CFAP application, producers will need sales, inventory and other records. However, since CFAP is a self-certification program, this documentation will not need to be submitted with the application. Because applicants are subject to spot check and will be required to provide documentation, producers should retain the documentation used to complete the application. If a producer willfully makes and represents as true any verbal or written declaration, certification, statement, or verification that the producer knows or believes not to be true, in the course of either applying for or participating in CFAP, or both, the producer will be subject to prosecution under Federal criminal and civil fraud statutes.
Q: How much is USDA spending to directly support producers negatively impacted by COVID-19?
A: CFAP will provide $16 billion in direct support for agricultural producers where prices and market supply chains have been impacted and will assist producers with additional adjustment and marketing costs resulting from lost demand and short-term disruptions for the 2020 marketing year caused by COVID-19.Commodity specific rates and a payment calculator can be found at farmers.gov/cfap1.
Q: The impacts of COVID-19 on agriculture producers are significant. What if you run out of funding?
A: : To ensure the availability of funding throughout the application period, producers with approved applications initially received 80 percent of their CFAP payments. Beginning the week of August 17, FSA will automatically issue the remaining 20 percent of the calculated payment to eligible producers. Going forward, producers who apply for CFAP will receive 100 percent of their total payment, not to exceed the payment limit, when their applications are approved.
Q: When are payments expected to begin?
A: Eligible producers are currently receiving payments for CFAP. Program approval is handled at the local level and FSA county offices process applications as they receive them. The timeline for this approval process, including required internal controls and data validation, varies from county to county and applications are paid as they are approved.
Q: What are the payment limits for CFAP?
A: There is a payment limitation of $250,000 per person or entity for all commodities combined. Applicants who are corporations, limited liability companies, or limited partnerships may qualify for an increased payment limitation to either $500,000 or $750,000 if at least two or three individual persons holding an ownership interest in the entity each provide at least 400 hours of active personal labor or active personal management for the farming operation. Although the payment limitation is increased for the corporation, LLC or LP, each member’s payment limitation that they may receive (directly or indirectly) remains subject to the $250,000 payment limit, which means that the entity may not receive the full amount of the increased entity limitation. There may be additional reductions if the member has CFAP payments through applications for other farming operations.
Q: Can a producer get assistance if he/she didn’t sell calves between January and April?
A: Assistance to cattle producers has two components – unpriced cattle sold between January 15, 2020 to April 15, 2020 and highest owned cattle inventory on a date selected by the producer between April 16, 2020, to May 14, 2020. Cattle producers can participate in either or both components of the program.
Q: If a dairy producer had to dump milk, will his/her dumped milk be covered?
A: CFAP dairy payments are based on production in the first quarter of calendar year 2020 which includes milk that farmers were forced to dump. Milk produced during this period will be used to calculate producer payments for both the first quarter and second quarter of 2020.
Q: Are animals that have been depopulated because of the impact of COVID-19 on processing facilities included in CFAP?
A: Assistance to livestock producers has two components – unpriced animals sold between January 15, 2020 to April 15, 2020 and the highest owned livestock inventory on a date selected by the producer between April 16, 2020, to May 14, 2020. Animals that are a part of a producer’s inventory on the date he/she chooses are eligible for a CFAP payment.
Q: Can CFAP payments be withheld to satisfy a debt?
A: No. Per the CFAP regulation, these payments will not be subject to administrative offset. This mean the payments will not be withheld to satisfy and USDA debts nor will they be offset by Treasury.
Q: If producers donated their specialty crop, are they eligible for Category 2 or Category 3 payments?
A: Producers are encouraged to apply for assistance under CFAP if they donated crops that otherwise would have spoiled due to COVID related marketing disruptions. USDA will consider those losses similar to crops that were not sold or shipped from the farm.
Funding and Payment Calculations
Q: Many sources indicate the impact of COVID-19 on American agriculture will surpass $40 billion. Why didn’t USDA provide more money to assist producers?
A: The CARES Act provided USDA $9.5 billion to establish a direct producer payment program to prevent, prepare for, and respond to coronavirus. Because Secretary Perdue determined that this was insufficient to compensate producers for costs related to on-going market disruptions and costs related to the transition to a more orderly marketing system as the COVID-19 pandemic wanes, he decided to use funds from the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) to assist producers, bringing the total to $16 billion.
Q: How will CFAP help agricultural producers impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic?
A: CFAP will provide producers of agricultural commodities with financial assistance that gives them the ability to absorb sales declines and increased marketing costs associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Producers will receive payments under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Stability (CARES) Act, in the amount of $9.5 billion, to compensate for losses due to price declines that occurred between mid-January 2020 and mid-April 2020. CCC Charter Act (Section 5 (b), (d) and (e)) funding will compensate producers for $6.5 billion due to on-going market disruptions and will assist with the transition to a more orderly marketing system as the pandemic wanes.
Q: How were payment rates determined?
A: USDA analyzed available information on futures and cash prices for commodities. Prices in mid-January were originally compared to prices in mid-April to determine the impact of COVID-19 on commodity markets as outlined in the cost-benefit analysis. USDA announced on August 11 that certain aquaculture commodities, nursery crops and cut flowers, and certain eggs are eligible for CFAP. Payment rates for these commodities were determined as follows:
- For aquaculture species (excluding crawfish), CARES Act funds will be used to make a payment to the producer by multiplying aquaculture species sold by inventory of the commodity sold from January 15, 2020, through April 15, 2020, multiplied by the payment rate. In addition, CCC funds will be used to make a payment to the aquaculture producer by multiplying inventory of the aquaculture species (excluding crawfish) that was not sold but was market size and available to be marketed between January 15, 2020, and April 15, 2020, by the payment rate.
- For crawfish producers, CARES Act funds will be used to make a payment to the producer by multiplying crawfish sales from January 15, 2020, through April 15, 2020, by the payment rate. In addition, CCC funds will be used to make a payment to the crawfish producer by multiplying crawfish inventory that was not sold as of April 15, 2020, due to lack of market and will not be sold in calendar year 2020, multiplied by the payment rate.
- There is no traditional market mechanism able to capture the price of thousands of different varieties of commodities of nursery crops and cut flowers. Therefore, payments to nursery crop and cut flower producers will be based on a percentage of the producer’s wholesale value of inventory. Cares Act payments for nursery crops and cut flowers will include inventory that was shipped but subsequently spoiled or is unpaid due to loss of marketing channels between January 15, 2020, and April 15, 2020, and will be calculated as the wholesale value of the inventory that was shipped that spoiled or is unpaid, multiplied by 15.55 percent. In addition, CCC fund will be used to make payments to nursery crop and cut flower producers for inventory that did not leave the farm between January 15, 2020, and April 15, 2020, due to a complete loss of marketing channel. In this case, the wholesale value of the inventory ready for sale that did not leave the farm by April 15, 2020, and that will not be sold due to lack of markets, is multiplied by 13.45 percent. Payment rates for nursery crops and cut flowers were determined using coverage rates that represent half of input costs multiplied by the 40.5 percent average reported revenue loss. This approach accounts for the higher percentage of input costs incurred prior to “harvest” of the inventory compared to traditional agricultural crops.
- For producers of frozen eggs and liquid eggs, CARES Act funds will be used to pay the sum of the 1) the production for January, February, and March, multiplied by the CARES Act payment rate of $0.05/lb. for liquid eggs and $0.06/lb. for frozen eggs; and 2) the production for January, February, and March, multiplied by the CCC payment rate of $0.02/lb.
Q: How are payments determined?
A: CFAP payments are determined by the agricultural commodity as outlined in the cost-benefit analysis. Payments for the eligible commodities USDA announced on August 11 are determined as follows:
- Sheep payments are based on unpriced sheep sold between January 15, 2020, and April 15, 2020, multiplied by the CARES Act payment rate plus a producer’s highest owned inventory on a date of his/her choosing between April 16, 2020, to May 14, 2020, multiplied by the CCC payment rate.
- Aquaculture payments are the sum of the aquaculture species sold (excluding crawfish) from January 15, 2020, through April 15, 2020, multiplied by the CARES Act payment rate and inventory of the aquaculture species (excluding crawfish) that was not sold but was market size and available to be marketed between January 15, 2020, and April 15, 2020, multiplied by the CCC payment rate.
- Crawfish payments are the sum of crawfish sales from January 15, 2020, through April 15, 2020, multiplied by the CARES Act payment rate and crawfish inventory that was not sold as of April 15, 2020, due to lack of market and will not be sold in calendar year 2020 multiplied by the CCC payment rate.
- Nursery crop and cut flower payments are the sum of nursery crop and cut flower inventory that was shipped but subsequently spoiled or is unpaid due to loss of marketing channels between January 15, 2020, and April 15, 2020, the wholesale value of the inventory that was shipped that spoiled or is unpaid, multiplied by 15.55 percent; and nursery crop and cut flower inventory that did not leave the farm between January 15, 2020, and April 15, 2020, due to a complete loss of marketing channel, the wholesale value of the inventory ready for sale that did not leave the farm by April 15, 2020, and that will not be sold due to lack of markets, multiplied by 13.45 percent.
- Liquid and frozen egg payments are the sum of 1) the first quarter production, multiplied by the CARES Act payment rate of $0.05/lb. for liquid eggs and $0.06/lb. for frozen eggs; and 2) the first quarter production, multiplied by the CCC payment rate of $0.02/lb. First quarter production is defined as production during January, February, and March of 2020.
Q: How did USDA determine the CFAP program dates of January 15 and April 15?
A: CFAP assists producers of agricultural commodities who have suffered a 5-percent-or-greater price decline due to COVID-19 from January 15 to April 15 and face additional significant marketing costs for held inventories after that period as established in the CFAP regulation. The large majority of losses covered under the CARES portion of the CFAP rule considers one quarter of production that occurred in the beginning of 2020 that was significantly affected by COVID-19. USDA chose January 15 as the start date for the first quarter calculation as it represents market conditions prior to COVID-19 arrival in the United States. April 15 was chosen as the ending date as it represents the end of the three-month period (or one quarter) beginning on January 15 (the middle of the week used for the beginning period of prices). In addition, USDA waited as long as possible to update price data to capture as much of the COVID-19 impacts as possible before submitting the rule package for approval. Price comparisons were completed using average prices for the week of April 6-10, the last week immediately prior to April 15. Assistance for additional significant marketing costs for held inventories of livestock begins on April 16 and ends on May 14 to capture the period after the first quarter but before publication of the CFAP regulation.
Q: The payment rate for my commodity changed from when I applied. Do I have to do anything?
A: For producers who have already applied for CFAP and whose commodities have experienced payment rate increases, FSA will automatically calculate the increase and issue a payment. For potato and mint payments, producers will need to contact FSA to amend the application to identify the specific type of potatoes or mint. Producers who have already applied will not be impacted by a payment rate decrease.
Q: What aquaculture species are eligible for coverage under CFAP?
A: USDA worked with the Department of Commerce to provide non-redundant coverage for the aquaculture industry from the CARES Act. USDA will cover eligible aquaculture species grown and harvested from a control environment, including raceways, ponds, tanks, and recirculating systems. Commerce will cover privately-owned aquaculture businesses growing products in state or federal marine waters of the United States and the hatcheries that supply them under CARES Act Section 12005. This includes all molluscan shellfish and marine algae. Non-salmonid marine finfish grown in marine waters not covered by USDA are eligible for Sec. 12005 funding.
USDA announced on August 11 that certain aquaculture commodities are eligible for CFAP as a result of public comments and data submitted through the Notice of Funding Availability. Eligible aquaculture commodities include catfish, crawfish, largemouth bass and carp sold live as foodfish, hybrid striped bass, red drum, salmon, sturgeon, tilapia, trout, ornamental/tropical fish, and recreational sportfish. Learn more at farmers.gov/cfap1/aquaculture.
Q: What were the eligibility requirements for covered aquaculture species?
A: USDA determined that individual types of aquaculture products incurred a requisite decline in price as outlined in the Notice of Funding Availability. The deadline for submission was June 22, 2020.
Q:Are molluscan shellfish farmers eligible for coverage under CFAP?
A: No, molluscan shellfish are eligible for coverage under the Department of Commerce’s per CARES Act Section 12005.
Q: Are seaweed producers eligible for coverage under CFAP?
A: No, marine algae producers are eligible for coverage under the Department of Commerce’s per CARES Act Section 12005.
Nursery Crops and Cut Flower Coverage
Q: What is meant by the term “controlled environment” when applied to horticulture and nursery crops?
A: “Controlled environment” is met when growers take actions to grow crops, including field grown crops, that are considered normal practices for that crop in that region (structures, fields, facilities, soil, water, nutrients, etc.)
Some examples of how field grown crops can be considered “controlled”:
- Control of the land or soil
- Providing nutrients
- Control of irrigation
- Insect infestation or disease control