Tax time is a busy time of year for business owners, and this includes farmers and ranchers. Navigating filing your taxes can be challenging, especially if you are new to running a farm business, participated in disaster programs for first time, or are trying to forecast your farm’s tax bill. Receiving funds from USDA through activities such as a conservation program payment or a disaster program is considered farm income that includes a tax liability for farm businesses.
To better support America’s farmers and ranchers USDA has partnered with tax experts from across the country to connect producers to information and resources related to USDA program payments, asset protection, and the important relationships between federal income taxes and USDA farm programs.
USDA issues 1099 forms for:
- Conservation programs administered by the Farm Service Agency and Natural Resource Conservation Service (such as the Conservation Reserve Program and Environmental Quality Incentives Program)
- Crop disaster payments
- Assistance for distressed borrowers, including through Section 22006 of the Inflation Reduction Act
- Market Facilitation Program
Additionally, USDA issues 1098 forms for USDA farm loans, if:
- The farmer is classified as an individual.
- And if the farm ownership or operating loan is secured by real estate.
USDA technical assistance is free and creates no tax implications.
Section 22006 of the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) provided $3.1 billion for USDA to provide relief to distressed borrowers with certain FSA loans and to expedite assistance for those whose agricultural operations are at financial risk.
If you are a direct loan borrower who received financial assistance in 2022 from FSA under Section 22006, you will receive a new IRS 1099-C form and a revised 1099-G form, along with a letter directing you to available resources.
Please note: Borrowers who received Section 22006 assistance in 2022 will receive one new Form 1099-C for each loan the borrower received a Section 22006 payment on. For example, if a borrower received Section 22006 assistance on three different FSA loans, they would receive one corrected Form 1099-G and three Form 1099-Cs.
Depending upon your circumstances, the IRA payment reported on your new 1099-C may be excluded from your income based on individual analysis filed with your tax return.
USDA cannot and does not provide tax advice but wants you to be aware of options that may help manage your tax liability. Please consult a tax professional with all tax-related questions regarding the FSA IRA assistance you received in 2022.
Watch on-demand webinars for IRA assistance recipients:
- Video: July 12 Webinar - Ag Taxes: What New Farmers Should Know
- Presentation: July 12 Webinar - Ag Taxes: What New Farmers Should Know
- Extension Article: Farm, Farming and Who's A Farmer
- Extension Article: How to Choose a Tax Professional
Crop Disaster Payments
- Video: Weather - Related Sales of Livestock: Income Tax Management Issues
- Presentation: Weather - Related Sales of Livestock: Income Tax Management Issues
- Extension Article: Weather - Related Sales of Livestock
Additional Tax Information
Assistance for Distressed Borrowers
The Tax Estimator Tool is an interactive spreadsheet that producers can download to estimate tax liability. It is for informational and educational purposes and should not considered tax or legal advice. Producers may need to work with a tax professional to determine the correct information to be entered in the Tax Estimator Tool.
The tool is available at Tax Estimator (ruraltax.org)
Filing Your Taxes
There are various types of tax return preparers, including certified public accountants, enrolled agents, attorneys, and many others who don't have a professional credential. You expect your preparer to be skilled in tax preparation and to accurately file your income tax return.
The IRS has several useful resources to ensure that your taxes are filed by a knowledgeable tax professional. See the following resources or visit www.irs.gov:
Before meeting with a tax consultant or accountant, here are some important things to do or consider:
- Gather all 1099, 1098 and other tax forms issued by USDA.
- If you have a Farm Loan, visit the self-service website on farmers.gov to view your loan information, history, and payments.
- Crop insurance proceeds must be included in your farm income.
Farmers can deduct certain conservation-related expenses. According to the IRS, you may deduct up to 25 percent of your gross farm income for conservation expenses.
If you haven’t received your USDA 1099 or 1098 forms, there are several helpful resources:
- For NRCS-related 1099 forms, contact the 1099 Help Desk for reprints at 1-800-421-0323. You may also send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- For FSA-related 1098 forms, call 866-729-9705.
Or visit your local USDA service center. To find yours visit: farmers.gov/service-locator.
This webpage and its resources are part of a broader effort by USDA to provide tax education and resources. USDA’s partners include the National Farm Income Tax Extension Committee and Extension Ag Tax Experts from around the country.
- Extension Article: Estate and Gift Tax
- Extension Article: Time Value of Money
- Website: Agricultural Financial, Tax and Asset Protection
- USDA Invests $14.5 Million in Taxpayer Education, Program Outreach Efforts for Farmers and Ranchers
- IRS Taxpayer Advocate Service
- Rural Tax Education: Small Farm Tax Guide
- Economic Research Service
- Farm Service Agency’s Outreach and Education webpage
- Natural Resources Conservation Service’s Outreach and Advocacy webpage
- New Farmer Training
- USDA Equity Commission
Find Your Local Service Center
USDA Service Centers are locations where you can connect with Farm Service Agency, Natural Resources Conservation Service, or Rural Development employees for your business needs. Enter your state and county below to ﬁnd your local service center and agency offices. If this locator does not work in your browser, please visit offices.usda.gov.